Geodesy and Topography

Geodesy is one of the oldest sciences, based on the study of data about the Earth (its shapes and sizes), objects placed on it, as well as the image of the earth's surface or its parts on plans and maps. In addition, under this term it is customary to understand the production of a number of measurements on the earth's surface, carried out with the aim of solving diverse economic, engineering and other practical problems.
The main tasks of geodesy:
  • Making measurements necessary for the safe and efficient construction of buildings and structures, as well as their subsequent operation;
  • Drawing up maps and plans of the area;
  • Fixing the position of individual points on the Earth's surface;
  • Data standardization (spreading a single coordinate system to the territory of the Earth, continent or a separate state);
  • Determination of the parameters of the Earth (figure, gravitational field, sizes, displacements of blocks of the earth's crust, etc.)
Topography implies location description. Topographic maps (plans) are considered the result of such a description. They depict the physical surface of the Earth and various objects of human life. So, topography is a science that studies ways of displaying the earth's surface according to the results of its measurements.
Topographic survey is a mandatory type of work before starting construction on any site.
The main tasks of topography:
  • development of methods for creating topographic plans and maps;
  • development of methods for displaying on maps and plans of the earth's surface;
  • a set of content and accuracy of the execution of topographic plans;
  • creation of methods for solving practical problems on topoplans;
  • classification of topographic maps.