Cartography is the art and science of graphing a geographical area, usually on a flat surface such as a map or diagram.

Terrain mapping or relief mapping is the depiction of the shape of the earth's surface on a map using one or more of several techniques developed. Relief is an important aspect of physical geography, and therefore its depiction is a central problem in cartographic design, and more recently in geographic information systems and geovisualization.

Now it is impossible to imagine our life without maps. Even the most detailed description of the area will not replace a map.
Maps are used in the following areas:
  • Architecture, design, construction
  • Electricity and gas supply
  • Geology and mining
  • Oil and gas and pipeline transport
  • Forestry
  • Agriculture
  • Transport
  • Safety and emergency